What Is Neurofeedback?
All brains produce a variety of electrical wave patterns which reflect what the brain is doing. This article describes the process where the brain’s own output is used to help people change their brain’s functioning which is commonly called, neurofeedback training. An additional science called Quantitative EEG (brain maps) is used to help assess the kind of brain training that holds the most promise. Several of the major conditions for which neurofeedback training has proven most successful are outlined below, including the key scientific studies that support the sort of training that is used. Written by D. Corydon Hammond, PhD
If you want learn more about what is neurofeedback, visit our “What is neurofeedback?” page.
Comprehensive Neurofeedback Bibliography
There have been hundreds of papers in the scientific literature on this topic and this document lists many pages of the best of them in topical groups. Many of the studies now have links to read either the abstract or some even full text online at no charge. Both professional care providers and the public are invited to delve further into this research. Written by D. Corydon Hammond, PhD and Allen Novian, PhD.
The following book purchases support the ISNR Research Foundation.
Reprints From Peer-Reviewed Journals
These six reprints with the full text of the original journal article including the graphics are listed below. The society expresses great thanks to both the authors and to the original publishers for permission to republish.
Asthmatic Extrathoracic Upper Airway Obstruction: Laryngeal Dyskinesis Jeffrey Nahmias, MD, Michael Tansey, PhD and Monroe S. Karetzy, MD. Reprinted with permission: New Jersey Medicine, September 1994, Vol 91 No 9 616-620
Ten-Year Stability of EEG Biofeedback Results for a Hyperactive Boy Who Failed Fourth Grade Perceptually Impaired Class Michael Tansey, PhD. Reprinted with permission: Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, Vol 18 No 1, 1993 33-44
Wechsler (WISC-R) Changes Following Treatment of Learning Disabilities via EEG Biofeedback Training in a Private Practice Setting Micheal Tansey, PhD. Reprinted with permission: Australian Journal or Psychology, 1991, 43 147-153
Recommended Books for Professionals:
Damasio, A. R. (1999). The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotions in the Making of Consciousness. San Diego, CA: Harcourt/Brace
Damasio, A. R. (2003) Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow and the Feeling Brain. San Diego, CA: Harvest/Harcourt, Inc
Damasio, A. R. (2005) Descartes’ Error: Emotion Reason and the Human Brain. New York, NY: Avon Books
Demos, J. (2004). Getting Started in Neurofeedback. New York: W. W. Norton.|
Evans, J. R. (Ed.) (2005). Forensic Applications of QEEG & Neurotherapy. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Press.
Evans, J. R. (Ed.) (2007). Handbook of Neurofeedback: Dynamics & Clinical Applications. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Press.
Evans, J. R., & Abarbanel, A. (1999). Introduction to Quantitative EEG & Neurofeedback. New York: Academic Press.
Fehmi, L., & Robbins, J. (2007), The Open-Focus Brain. Boston, MA; Trumpeter Books/Shambhala Publications, Distributed by Random House.
Hammond, D. C. (2007). LENS: The Low Energy Neurofeedback System. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Press.
Hirschberg, L. M., Chiu, S., & Fazier, J,. A. (Eds). Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America: Emerging Interventions. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Luria, A. R. (1960) Higher Cortical Functions in Man. New York, NY: Basic Books, Inc.
Luria, A. R. (1973). The Working Brain. New York, NY :Basic Books
Neidermeyer, E & Lopes Da Silva, F. (2005) Electroencephaolgraphy: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications and Related Fields, (5th Ed). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
Monastra, V.J. (2007) Unlocking the Potential of Patients With ADHD; A Model for Clinical Practice. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association
Schwartz, M. S. & Andrasik, F. (Eds.) (2003). Biofeedback: A Practitioner’s Guide (Third Edition (Third Edition). New York, Guilford.
Thompson, M., & Thompson, L. (2003). The Neurofeedback Book. Wheat Ridge, CO: Association for Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback.
Thornton, K. E. (2006). No Child Left Behind Goals (and More) Are Obtainable With the Neurocognitive Approach, Volume 1. NJ: BookSurge Publishing.
Tinius, T. (Ed.). (2004). New Developments in Blood Flow Hemoencephalography. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Press.
Recommended Books for the General Public
or Beginning Professionals:
Ayers, M., & Montgomery, P. (2007). Whispers from the Brain. Beverly Hills: AyersMont.
Cohen, M.P. (2020). Neurofeedback 101: Rewiring the Brain for ADHD, Anxiety, Depression and Beyond (without medication). Jupiter, FL: Amazon
Hill, R. W., & Castro, E. (2002). Getting Rid of Ritalin. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing.
Larsen, S. (2006). The Healing Power of Neurofeedback. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.
Robbins, J. (2000). A Symphony in the Brain. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Steinberg, M., & Othmer, S. (2004). ADD: The 20-Hour Solution. Bandon, OR: Robert D. Reed Publishers.
Recommended Books on EEG & QEEG:
American Society of Electroneurodiagnostic Technologists (Ed.). (1996). EEG Patterns & Normal Variants. Carroll, IA: ASET.
Fisch, B. J. (1999). Fisch & Spehlmann’s EEG Primer: Basic Principles of Digital and Analog EEG. New York: Elsev
Hammond, D. C., & Gunkelman, J. (2001). The Art of Artifacting. Corpus Christi: International Society for Neuronal Regulation.
Hughes, J. R. (1999). EEG in Clinical Practice (3rd Edition). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
More Advanced Reading
American Society of Electroneurodiagnostic Technologists (Ed.). (1995). EEG Montages & Polarity. Carroll, IA: ASET
American Society of Electroneurodiagnostic Technologists (Ed.). (1997). Drugs & Their Effects on Neurodiagnostics. Carroll, IA: ASET.
American Society of Electroneurodiagnostic Technologists (Ed.). (2000). EEG Recording: Techniques & Instrumentation. Carroll, IA: ASET.
Duffy, F. H., Iyer, V. G., & Surwillo, W. W. (1989). Clinical Electroencephalography and Topographic Brain Mapping: Technology & Practice. New York: springer-Verlag.
Goldensohn, E. S., Legatt, A. D., Koszer, S., & Wolf, S. M. (1998). Goldensohn’s EEG Interpretation: Problems of Overreading & Underreading (2nd Edition). Armonk, N.Y.: Futura Publishing.
Lubar, J. F. (Ed.) (2003). Quantitative Electroencephalographic Analysis (QEEG) Databases for Neurotherapy: Description, Validation, & Application. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Press.
Luders, H. O., & Noachtar, S. (2000). Atlas and Classification of Electroencephalography. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
Niedermeyer, E., & DaSilva, F. L. (2004). Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications, and Related Fields. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
Wong, P. K. H. (1996). Digital EEG in Clinical Practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.
Recommended Books About the Brain:
Arnadottir, G. (1990). The Brain and Behavior: Assessing Cortical Dysfunction Through Activities of Daily Living (ADL). St. Louis: Mosby.
Carter, R. (1998). Mapping the Mind. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Joseph, R. (1996). Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Clinical Neuroscience (Fourth Edition). St. Louis: Mosby.
Nolte, J. (1999). The Human Brain: An Introduction to Its Functional Anatomy (4th Edition). St. Louis: Mosby. A more advanced text.
Posner, M. J., & Raichle, M. E. (1997). Images of Mind. New York: Scientific American Library.
Tranel, D. (2002). Functional neuroanatomy. Chapter in S. C. Yudolfsky & R. E. Hales (Eds), Textbook of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences (4th edition). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association Press, pp. 71-112.
Tranel, D. (2002). Higher brain functions. Chapter in S. C. Yudolfsky & R. E. Hales (Eds), Textbook of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences (4th edition). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association Press, pp. 555-580.