Neurofeedback continues to gain interest worldwide due to its efficacy with some syndromes and the reduced risk of serious side effects as contrasted with pharmaceutical agents. In the earliest periods of neurofeedback, the concepts of operant conditioning were engrained into the framework, yet technology or mass delivery has skewed the fundamental core of documenting that learning has occurred as a result of training (Kamiya, 1971; Lubar, 1977, 1998; Lubar & Bahler, 1976; Maurizio et al., 2014; Sitzman, Kamiya, & Johnston, 1983; Sterman, 1973, 1981; Sterman, Macdonald, & Stone, 1974). It has been discussed that the enormity of neurofeedback or brainwave training devices available to the public and clinical domains has increased exponentially over the past decade, and types of devices were classified by the methods and outcomes provided, eg operant conditioning, undifferentiated and entertainment. This view was taken given the lack of publications demonstrating learning trends as well as unspecified frequency amplitudes being trained and monitored, not to mention methods shown in placebo-controlled trials (Cannon et al., 2014; Pigott, Cannon, & Trullinger, 2021; Pigott et al., 2017). The Deymed Brainfeedback Pro has 2 reinforcement channels with typical protocols and protocols created from the mother type LORETA neurofeedback (Cannon, et al 2007; 2009; 2012; 2014). The device offers extraordinary control over reinforcement and inhibitory thresholds with a trend engine that plots microvolt levels across time in a clear, easy to use manner. This workshop will include education on the mechanisms of operant conditioning, the precise differentiation between reward and reinforcement and associated learning concepts. The user interface will be demonstrated in real time with training on electrode placements, frequency ranges and microvolt levels to target, including artifacts. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological concepts will be discussed as a basis for electrode placement and range of EEG frequency training. Conceptual and empirical data will be presented for successful home or clinical use and potential ranges of support available to the end user. The training protocols will be introduced with behavioral components to facilitate the “best” outcomes based upon the science of learning, practice, and mastery. The potential use of the instrument in randomized controlled trials will also be presented. The rate at which EEG source localization methods for neurofeedback training are increasing dramatically, with increasing demands on the user to integrate technical and neuroscience data; however, an intuitive system that is scalable and easy to use would better fit the parent or professional that does not fit the neuroscientist mold.
Presented by: Rex Cannon