Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI), commonly referred to as a concussion, can be described as a brain injury resulting from acute trauma to the head. (Carroll, Cassidy, Holm, Kraus, & Coronado, 2004) In the United States It is reported that up to 1.7 million people sustain a Traumatic Brain Injury annually which has resulted in the direct and indirect cost of $60 billion in the United Sates. However it is estimated that the burden of TBI is dramatically underrepresented as many people who experience mild or moderate TBI do not seek medical support. With an estimated 38 million children involved in athletic activities it is important to consider the effects that MTBI presents to the U.S. (Daneshvar, Nowinski, Mckee, & Cantu, 2011). MTBI is commonly associated with fatigue, headaches, memory loss, poor attention, sleep disturbances, seizures, feelings of depression, and other significant symptoms. (Grady, 2010)
The scope of MTBI makes improved detection along with ease and efficacy of treatment vital. Post-concussion 86% of patients are found to have abnormal EEG making EEG an important tool in the detection of MTBI. Additionally the use of neuropsychological testing can help to identify the lasting effects of MTBI. (Haneef, Levin, Frost, & Mizrahi, 2013). When considering the types of improvements that different therapy modalities make, time of treatment has always been a point of discussion for treatment providers. Many physicians believe that the patient should engage in a period of rest before starting therapy to improve MTBI symptomology. We intend to explore the relationship between functional outcomes of the concussed patient and the amount of time elapsed before the start of treatment.
Methods: Our study aims to compare outcomes of 4-channel coherence training with recent versus remotely concussed individuals using a case series methodology. Patients diagnosed with MTBI will undergo a qEEG to develop individual protocol for 4 channel multivariate coherence training. Pre and post qEEG will be done to appreciate global changes in coherence. Additionally, other neuropsychological testing indices will be administered to provide a functional look at changes in MTBI related symptomology. The correlation between demographic information and outcome of treatment will be explored, as well.
Assessment: Quantitative electroencephalogram studies were performed pre and post treatment using Brain Dx, NeuroRep, and Neuroguide. Additionally the use of multiple neuropsychological tests were employed.
Anticipated Results/ Hypothesis: We anticipate that the use of 4 channel multivariate coherence neurofeedback training will improve the functional outcome of the concussed patient, regardless of time of injury.