2014: Heart Rate Variability

This 15-contact-hour workshop is designed for biofeedback/neurofeedback practitioners, psychologists, clinical counselors, clinical social workers, marriage and family therapists, nurses, physicians, and other health care professionals and academicians interested in utilizing heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in their practice or research. This workshop will cover all 15 hours of the BCIA HRV Biofeedback Certificate of Completion Blueprint and will cover cardiac anatomy and physiology, respiratory anatomy and physiology, autonomic nervous system anatomy and physiology, heart rate variability, HRV instrumentation, HRV measurements, HRV biofeedback training strategies, and HRV biofeedback applications. Attendees will review the cardiac, respiratory, and autonomic anatomy and physiology that underlies HRV biofeedback. The presenters will explore emerging findings from neurocardiology that support Thayer and Lane’s neurovisceral integration model. They will emphasize the dynamic relationship between intrinsic cardiac ganglia and the brain. They will discuss the central role of breathing in diverse disorders like anxiety, hypertension, and chronic pain. Last, they will explain how HRV biofeedback restores autonomic balance and why this is important to health and performance. Attendees will be able to discuss the meaning and sources of HRV, and the correlates of low, normal, and high HRV. The presenters will explain the relationship between aging, disease, and reduced HRV. Attendees will be able explain how to properly use HRV instruments and interpret signals from blood volume pulse, electrocardiogram, and pneumograph sensors. The presenters will survey the major artifacts that contaminate recordings from these sensors and show how to prevent or minimize them. Attendees will be able to describe and interpret HRV time and frequency domain measurements. The presenters will explain how to interpret short-term and 24-hour recordings using published normative values. Attendees will be able to explain how to assess and train clients to increase their baroreceptor reflex and HRV time and frequency domain measurements. The presenters will explain how to find the resonance frequency and will present training protocols that integrate resonance frequency breathing with emotional self- regulation. Finally, attendees will be able to describe the efficacy of successful clinical and optimal performance HRV applications.

Learning Objectives:
1. Attendees will be able to explain the cardiac, respiratory, and autonomic anatomy and physiology that underlies HRV biofeedback.
2. Attendees will be able to discuss the meaning and sources of HRV, and the correlates of low, normal, and high HRV.
3. Attendees will be able explain how to properly use HRV instruments and interpret signals from blood volume pulse, electrocardiogram, and pneumograph sensors.
4. Attendees will be able to describe and interpret HRV time and frequency domain measurements.
5. Attendees will be able to explain how to assess and train clients to increase their baroreceptor reflex and HRV time and frequency domain measurements.
6. Attendees will be able to describe the efficacy of major clinical and optimal performance HRV applications.

References:
Agelink, M., Boz, C., Ullrich, H., & Andrich, J. (2002). Relationship between major depression and heart rate variability. Clinical consequences and implications for antidepressive treatment. Psychiatry Research, 113(1), 139–149.
Akselrod, S., Gordon, D., Ubel, F. A., et al. (1981). Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuation: A quantitative probe of beat-to-beat Science, 213, 220–222.
Bernardi, L., Valle, F., Coco, M., Calciati, A., & Sleight, P. (1996). Physical activity influences heart rate variability and very-low-frequency components in Holter electrocardiograms. Cardiovascular Research, 32, 234–237.
Bernardi, L., Gabutti, A., Porta, C., Spicuzza, L. (2001). Slow breathing reduces chemoreflex response to hypoxia and hypercapnia, and increases baroreflex sensitivity. Journal of Hypertension, 19(12), 2221–2229.
Bigger, J., Fleiss, J., Rolnitzky, L., & Steinman, R. (1993). The ability of several short-term measures of RR variability to predict mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation, 88, 927–934.
Bigger, J., Fleiss, J., Steinman, R., Rolnitzky, L., Kleiger, R., & Rottman, J. (1992). Frequency domain measures of heart period variability and mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation, 85, 164–171.
Bigger, J. T., Fleiss, J. L., Steinman, R. C., Rolnitzky, L. M., Schneider, W. J., & Stein, P. K. (1995). RR variability in healthy, middle-aged persons compared with patients with chronic coronary heart disease or recent acute myocardial infarction. Circulation, 91(7), 1936–1943.
Berntson, G. G., Bigger, J. T., Eckberg, D. L., Grossman, P., Kaufmann, P. G., Malik, M., et al. (1997). Heart rate variability: Origins, methods, and interpretive caveats. Psychophysiology, 34(6), 623–648.
Berntson, G. G., Quigley, K. S., & Lozano, D. (2007). Cardiovascular psychophysiology. In J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. G. Berntson (Eds.). Handbook of psychophysiology (3rd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bigger, J., Fleiss, J., Rolnitzky, L., & Steinman, R. (1993). The ability of several short-term measures of RR variability to predict mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation, 88, 927–934.
Bigger, J., Fleiss, J., Steinman, R., Rolnitzky, L., Kleiger, R., & Rottman, J. (1992). Frequency domain measures of heart period variability and mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation, 85, 164–171.
Bigger, J. T., Fleiss, J. L., Steinman, R. C., Rolnitzky, L. M., Schneider, W. J., & Stein, P. K. (1995). RR variability in healthy, middle-aged persons compared with patients with chronic coronary heart disease or recent acute myocardial infarction. Circulation, 91(7), 1936–1943.
Carney, R. M., Blumenthal, J. A., Stein, P. K., Watkins, L., Catellier, D., Berkman, L. F., Czajkowski, S. M., O’Connor, C., Stone, P. H., & Freedland, K. E. (2001). Depression, heart rate variability, and acute myocardial infarction.
Circulation, 104(17), 2024–2028.
Casolo, G., Balli, E., Taddei, T., Amuhasi, J., & Gori, C. (1989). Decreased spontaneous heart rate variability in congestive heart failure. The American Journal of Cardiology, 64(18), 1162–1167.
Cohen, H., & Benjamin, J. (2006). Power spectrum analysis and cardiovascular morbidity in anxiety disorders.
Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical, 128, 1–8.

DeBoer, R. W., Karemaker, J. M., & Strackee, J. (1987). Hemodynamic fluctuations and baroreflex sensitivity in humans: A beat-to-beat model. American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 253(22), H680–H689.
Del Pozo, J. M., & Gevirtz, R. N. (2003). Complementary and alternative care for heart disease. Biofeedback, 31(3), 16–17.
Del Pozo, J. M., Gevirtz, R. N., Scher, B., & Guarneria, E. (2004). Biofeedback treatment increases heart rate variability in patients with known coronary artery disease. American Heart Journal, 147(3), G1–G6.
Gass, J. J., & Glaros, A. G. (2013). Autonomic dysregulation in headache patients. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 38, 257–263.
Gevirtz, R. N. (2000). Resonant frequency training to restore homeostasis for treatment of psychophysiological disorders. Biofeedback, 27, 7–9.
Gevirtz, R. N. (2003). The promise of HRV biofeedback: Some preliminary results and speculations. Biofeedback, 31(3), 18–19.
Gevirtz, R. N. (2005). Heart rate variability biofeedback in clinical practice. AAPB Fall workshop.
Gevirtz, R. N. (2008). Cardio-respiratory psychophysiology: Gateway to mind-body medicine. AAPB Spring conference workshop.
Gevirtz, R. (2013). The nerve of that disease: The vagus nerve and cardiac rehabilitation. Biofeedback, 41, 32–38.
Gevirtz, R. N., & Lehrer, P. (2003). Resonant frequency heart rate biofeedback. In M. S. Schwartz, & F. Andrasik (Eds.). Biofeedback: A practitioner’s guide (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Giardino, N. D., Chan, L., & Borson, S. (2004). Combined heart rate variability and pulse oximetry biofeedback for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 29(2), 121–133.
Ginsberg, J. P., Berry, M. E., & Powell, D. A. (2010). Alternative Therapies, 16(4), 52–60.
Goldstein, D. S., Bentho, O., Park, M. Y., & Sharabi, Y. (2011). Low frequency power of heart rate variability is not a measure of cardiac sympathetic tone but may be a measure of modulation of cardiac autonomic outflows by baroreflexes. Exp Physiol, 96(12), 1255–1261.
Herbs, D., Gevirtz, R. N., & Jacobs, D. (1994). The effect of heart rate Biofeedback and Self-regulation, 19(3), 281 Abstract.
Karemaker, J. M. (2009). Counterpoint: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is due to the baroreflex mechanism. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(5), 1742–1743.
Kazuma, N., Otsuka, K., Matsuoka, I., & Murata, M. (1997). Heart rate variability during 24 hours in asthmatic children. Chronobiol Int, 14, 597–606.
Kleiger, R. E., Miller, J. P., Bigger, J. T., et al., and the Multicenter Post-Infarction Research Group. (1987). Decreased heart rate variability and its association with increased mortality after acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology, 59, 256–262.
Lehrer, P. M. (2007). Biofeedback training to increase heart rate variability. In P. M. Lehrer, R. M. Woolfolk, & W. E. Sime (Eds.). Principles and practice of stress management (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Lehrer, P. M. (2013). How does heart rate variability biofeedback work? Resonance, the baroreflex, and other mechanisms. Biofeedback, 41, 26–31.
Lehrer, P. M., & Eddie, D. (2013). Dynamic processes in regulation and some implications for biofeedback and biobehavioral interventions. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 38, 143–155.
Lehrer, P., Karavidas, M. K., Lu, S. E., Coyle, S. M., Oikawa, L. O., Macor, M., Calvano, S. E., & Lowry, S. F. (2010). Voluntarily produced increases in heart rate variability modulate autonomic effects of endotoxin induced systemic inflammation: An exploratory study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 35(4), 303–315.
Lehrer, P. M., Smetankin, A., & Potapova, T. (2000a). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia biofeedback therapy for asthma: A report of 20 unmedicated pediatric cases using the Smetankin method. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 25, 193–200.
Lehrer, P. M., & Vaschillo, E. (2008). The future of heart rate variability biofeedback. Biofeedback, 36(1), 11–14.
Lehrer, P. M., Vaschillo, E. V., & Vaschillo, B. (2004). Heartbeat synchronizes with respiratory rhythm only under specific circumstances. Chest, 126(4), 1385–1386.
Lehrer, P. M., Vaschillo, E., Vaschillo, B., Lu, S. E., Eckberg,
D. L., Edelberg, R., et al. (2003). Heart rate variability biofeedback increases baroreflex gain and peak expiratory flow. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 796–805.

Lehrer, P., Vaschillo, E., Vaschillo, B., Lu, S-E, Scardella, A., &Habib, R. (2004). Biofeedback treatment for asthma.
Chest, 126, 352–361.
Lehrer, P., Vaschillo, B., Zucker, T., Graves, J., Katsamanis, M., Aviles, M., & Wamboldt, F. (2013). Protocol for heart rate variability biofeedback training. Biofeedback, 41(3), 98–109.
MacLean, B. (2004). The heart and the breath of love. Biofeedback, 32(4), 21–25.
Maver, J., Strucl, M., & Accetto, R. (2004). Autonomic nervous system activity in normotensive subjects with a family history of hypertension. Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society, 14(6), 369–375.
McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., Tiller, W. A. (1995). The effects of emotion on short term heart rate variability using power spectrum analysis. American Journal of Cardiology, 76.
McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., Tomasino, D., & Bradley, R. T. (2006). The coherent heart. Boulder Creek, CA: Institute of HeartMath.
McCraty, R., Atkinson M, Tomasino, D., & Bradley, R. T. (2009). The coherent heart: Heart-brain interactions, psychophysiological coherence, and the emergence of system-wide order. Integral Review, 5(2), 10–115.
Moravec, C. S., & McKee, M. G. (2013). Biofeedback in heart failure: Psychophysiologic remodeling of the failing heart. Biofeedback, 41, 7–12.
Moss, D. (2004). Heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback. Psychophysiology Today, 1, 4–11.
Nolan, J., Flapan, A. D., Capewell, S., MacDonald, T. M., Neilson, J. M., & Ewing, D. J. (1992). Decreased cardiac parasympathetic activity in chronic heart failure and its relation to left ventricular function. Br. Heart J., 67(6), 482–485.
Nunan, D., Sandercock, G. R. H., & Brodie, D. A. (2010). A quantitative systematic review of normal values for short- term heart rate variability in healthy adults. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 33(11), 1407–1417.
Ogletree-Hughes, M. L., Stull, L. B., Sweet, W. E., Smedira, N. G., McCarthy, P. M., & Moravec, C. S. (2001).
Mechanical unloading restores beta-adrenergic responsiveness and reverses receptor down-regulation in the failing human heart. Circulation, 104, 881–886.
Olshansky, B., Sabbah, H. N., Hauptman, P. J., & Colucci, W. S. (2008). Parasympathetic nervous system and heart failure: Pathophysiology and potential implications for therapy. Circulation, 118, 863–871.
Opthof, T. (2000). The normal range and determinants of the intrinsic heart rate in man. Cardiovascular Research, 45, 177–184.
Papillo, J. F., & Shapiro, D. (1990). The cardiovascular system. In J. T. Cacioppo & L. G. Tassinary (Eds.) Principles of psychophysiology: Physical, social, and inferential elements (pp. 456–512). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peper, E., Harvey, R., Lin, I., Tylova, H., & Moss, D. (2007). Is there more to blood volume pulse than heart rate variability, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and cardio-respiratory synchrony? Biofeedback, 35(2), 54–61.
Porges, S. W. (2011). The polyvagal theory: Neurophysiological foundations of emotions, attachment, communication, and self-regulation. New York: W. W. W. Norton & Company.
Purcell, E., Urlakis, M., & Shaffer, F. (2010). Physical and emotional effects of resonant diaphragmatic breathing [Abstract]. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 35, 327.
Ridker, P. M., Rifai, N., Stampfer, M. J., & Hennekens, C. H. (2000). Plasma concentration interleukin-6 and the risk of future myocardial infarction among apparently healthy men. Circulation, 101(15), 1767–1772.
Roach, D., Wilson, W., Ritchie, D., & Sheldon, R. (2004). Dissection of long-range heart rate variability: Controlled induction of prognostic measures by activity in the laboratory. J Am Coll Cardiol, 43(12), 2271–2277.
Schmidt, J. E., Carlson, C. R. (2009). A controlled comparison of emotional reactivity and physiological response in masticatory muscle pain patients. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 23, 230–242.
Shaffer, F., & Combatalade, D. C. (2013). Don’t add or miss a beat: A guide to cleaner heart rate variability recordings. Biofeedback, 41(3), 121–130.
Shaffer, F., & Moss, D. (2006). Biofeedback. In Y. Chun-Su, E. J. Bieber, & B. Bauer (Eds.). Textbook of complementary and alternative medicine (2nd ed.). Abingdon, Oxfordshire, UK: Informa Healthcare.
Shaffer, F., & Venner, J. (2013). Heart rate variability anatomy and physiology. Biofeedback, 41(1), 13–25. Stauss, H. M. (2003). Heart rate variability. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 285, R927–R931.
Taylor, J. A., Carr, D. L., Myers, C. W., & Eckberg, D. L. (1998). Mechanisms underlying very-low-frequency RR- interval oscillations in humans. Circulation, 98, 547–555.

Taylor, S. E. (2006). Tend and befriend: Biological bases of affiliation under stress. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(6), 273–277.
Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology (1996). Heart rate variability: Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical Circulation, 93, 1043–1065.
Thayer, J. F., Ahs, F., Fredrikson, M., Sollers, J. J., & Wager, T. D. (2012). A meta-analysis of heart rate variability and neuroimaging studies: Implications for heart rate variability as a marker of stress and health. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 747–756.
Thayer, J. F., Yamamoto, S. S., & Brosschot, J. F. (2010). The relationship of autonomic imbalance, heart rate variability and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Int J Cardiol, 141(2), 122–131.
Umetani, K., Singer, D. H., McCraty, R., & Atkinson, M. (1998). Twenty-four hour time domain heart rate variability and heart rate: Relations to age and gender over nine decades. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 31(2), 593–601.
Vaschillo, E., Lehrer, P., Rishe, N., & Konstantinov, M. (2002). Heart rate variability biofeedback as a method for assessing baroreflex function: A preliminary study of resonance in the cardiovascular system. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 27, 1–27.
Vaschillo, E., Vaschillo, B., & Lehrer, P. (2004). Heartbeat synchronizes with respiratory rhythm only under specific circumstances. Chest, 126, 1385–1386.
Yasuma, F., & Hayano, J. (2004). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Why does the heartbeat synchronize with respiratory rhythm? Chest, 125(2), 683–690.

Category:

$20.00

This 15-contact-hour workshop is designed for biofeedback/neurofeedback practitioners, psychologists, clinical counselors, clinical social workers, marriage and family therapists, nurses, physicians, and other health care professionals and academicians interested in utilizing heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in their practice or research. This workshop will cover all 15 hours of the BCIA HRV Biofeedback Certificate of Completion Blueprint and will cover cardiac anatomy and physiology, respiratory anatomy and physiology, autonomic nervous system anatomy and physiology, heart rate variability, HRV instrumentation, HRV measurements, HRV biofeedback training strategies, and HRV biofeedback applications. Attendees will review the cardiac, respiratory, and autonomic anatomy and physiology that underlies HRV biofeedback. The presenters will explore emerging findings from neurocardiology that support Thayer and Lane’s neurovisceral integration model. They will emphasize the dynamic relationship between intrinsic cardiac ganglia and the brain. They will discuss the central role of breathing in diverse disorders like anxiety, hypertension, and chronic pain. Last, they will explain how HRV biofeedback restores autonomic balance and why this is important to health and performance. Attendees will be able to discuss the meaning and sources of HRV, and the correlates of low, normal, and high HRV. The presenters will explain the relationship between aging, disease, and reduced HRV. Attendees will be able explain how to properly use HRV instruments and interpret signals from blood volume pulse, electrocardiogram, and pneumograph sensors. The presenters will survey the major artifacts that contaminate recordings from these sensors and show how to prevent or minimize them. Attendees will be able to describe and interpret HRV time and frequency domain measurements. The presenters will explain how to interpret short-term and 24-hour recordings using published normative values. Attendees will be able to explain how to assess and train clients to increase their baroreceptor reflex and HRV time and frequency domain measurements. The presenters will explain how to find the resonance frequency and will present training protocols that integrate resonance frequency breathing with emotional self- regulation. Finally, attendees will be able to describe the efficacy of successful clinical and optimal performance HRV applications.

Learning Objectives:
1. Attendees will be able to explain the cardiac, respiratory, and autonomic anatomy and physiology that underlies HRV biofeedback.
2. Attendees will be able to discuss the meaning and sources of HRV, and the correlates of low, normal, and high HRV.
3. Attendees will be able explain how to properly use HRV instruments and interpret signals from blood volume pulse, electrocardiogram, and pneumograph sensors.
4. Attendees will be able to describe and interpret HRV time and frequency domain measurements.
5. Attendees will be able to explain how to assess and train clients to increase their baroreceptor reflex and HRV time and frequency domain measurements.
6. Attendees will be able to describe the efficacy of major clinical and optimal performance HRV applications.

References:
Agelink, M., Boz, C., Ullrich, H., & Andrich, J. (2002). Relationship between major depression and heart rate variability. Clinical consequences and implications for antidepressive treatment. Psychiatry Research, 113(1), 139–149.
Akselrod, S., Gordon, D., Ubel, F. A., et al. (1981). Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuation: A quantitative probe of beat-to-beat Science, 213, 220–222.
Bernardi, L., Valle, F., Coco, M., Calciati, A., & Sleight, P. (1996). Physical activity influences heart rate variability and very-low-frequency components in Holter electrocardiograms. Cardiovascular Research, 32, 234–237.
Bernardi, L., Gabutti, A., Porta, C., Spicuzza, L. (2001). Slow breathing reduces chemoreflex response to hypoxia and hypercapnia, and increases baroreflex sensitivity. Journal of Hypertension, 19(12), 2221–2229.
Bigger, J., Fleiss, J., Rolnitzky, L., & Steinman, R. (1993). The ability of several short-term measures of RR variability to predict mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation, 88, 927–934.
Bigger, J., Fleiss, J., Steinman, R., Rolnitzky, L., Kleiger, R., & Rottman, J. (1992). Frequency domain measures of heart period variability and mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation, 85, 164–171.
Bigger, J. T., Fleiss, J. L., Steinman, R. C., Rolnitzky, L. M., Schneider, W. J., & Stein, P. K. (1995). RR variability in healthy, middle-aged persons compared with patients with chronic coronary heart disease or recent acute myocardial infarction. Circulation, 91(7), 1936–1943.
Berntson, G. G., Bigger, J. T., Eckberg, D. L., Grossman, P., Kaufmann, P. G., Malik, M., et al. (1997). Heart rate variability: Origins, methods, and interpretive caveats. Psychophysiology, 34(6), 623–648.
Berntson, G. G., Quigley, K. S., & Lozano, D. (2007). Cardiovascular psychophysiology. In J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. G. Berntson (Eds.). Handbook of psychophysiology (3rd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bigger, J., Fleiss, J., Rolnitzky, L., & Steinman, R. (1993). The ability of several short-term measures of RR variability to predict mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation, 88, 927–934.
Bigger, J., Fleiss, J., Steinman, R., Rolnitzky, L., Kleiger, R., & Rottman, J. (1992). Frequency domain measures of heart period variability and mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation, 85, 164–171.
Bigger, J. T., Fleiss, J. L., Steinman, R. C., Rolnitzky, L. M., Schneider, W. J., & Stein, P. K. (1995). RR variability in healthy, middle-aged persons compared with patients with chronic coronary heart disease or recent acute myocardial infarction. Circulation, 91(7), 1936–1943.
Carney, R. M., Blumenthal, J. A., Stein, P. K., Watkins, L., Catellier, D., Berkman, L. F., Czajkowski, S. M., O’Connor, C., Stone, P. H., & Freedland, K. E. (2001). Depression, heart rate variability, and acute myocardial infarction.
Circulation, 104(17), 2024–2028.
Casolo, G., Balli, E., Taddei, T., Amuhasi, J., & Gori, C. (1989). Decreased spontaneous heart rate variability in congestive heart failure. The American Journal of Cardiology, 64(18), 1162–1167.
Cohen, H., & Benjamin, J. (2006). Power spectrum analysis and cardiovascular morbidity in anxiety disorders.
Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical, 128, 1–8.

DeBoer, R. W., Karemaker, J. M., & Strackee, J. (1987). Hemodynamic fluctuations and baroreflex sensitivity in humans: A beat-to-beat model. American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 253(22), H680–H689.
Del Pozo, J. M., & Gevirtz, R. N. (2003). Complementary and alternative care for heart disease. Biofeedback, 31(3), 16–17.
Del Pozo, J. M., Gevirtz, R. N., Scher, B., & Guarneria, E. (2004). Biofeedback treatment increases heart rate variability in patients with known coronary artery disease. American Heart Journal, 147(3), G1–G6.
Gass, J. J., & Glaros, A. G. (2013). Autonomic dysregulation in headache patients. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 38, 257–263.
Gevirtz, R. N. (2000). Resonant frequency training to restore homeostasis for treatment of psychophysiological disorders. Biofeedback, 27, 7–9.
Gevirtz, R. N. (2003). The promise of HRV biofeedback: Some preliminary results and speculations. Biofeedback, 31(3), 18–19.
Gevirtz, R. N. (2005). Heart rate variability biofeedback in clinical practice. AAPB Fall workshop.
Gevirtz, R. N. (2008). Cardio-respiratory psychophysiology: Gateway to mind-body medicine. AAPB Spring conference workshop.
Gevirtz, R. (2013). The nerve of that disease: The vagus nerve and cardiac rehabilitation. Biofeedback, 41, 32–38.
Gevirtz, R. N., & Lehrer, P. (2003). Resonant frequency heart rate biofeedback. In M. S. Schwartz, & F. Andrasik (Eds.). Biofeedback: A practitioner’s guide (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Giardino, N. D., Chan, L., & Borson, S. (2004). Combined heart rate variability and pulse oximetry biofeedback for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 29(2), 121–133.
Ginsberg, J. P., Berry, M. E., & Powell, D. A. (2010). Alternative Therapies, 16(4), 52–60.
Goldstein, D. S., Bentho, O., Park, M. Y., & Sharabi, Y. (2011). Low frequency power of heart rate variability is not a measure of cardiac sympathetic tone but may be a measure of modulation of cardiac autonomic outflows by baroreflexes. Exp Physiol, 96(12), 1255–1261.
Herbs, D., Gevirtz, R. N., & Jacobs, D. (1994). The effect of heart rate Biofeedback and Self-regulation, 19(3), 281 Abstract.
Karemaker, J. M. (2009). Counterpoint: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is due to the baroreflex mechanism. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(5), 1742–1743.
Kazuma, N., Otsuka, K., Matsuoka, I., & Murata, M. (1997). Heart rate variability during 24 hours in asthmatic children. Chronobiol Int, 14, 597–606.
Kleiger, R. E., Miller, J. P., Bigger, J. T., et al., and the Multicenter Post-Infarction Research Group. (1987). Decreased heart rate variability and its association with increased mortality after acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology, 59, 256–262.
Lehrer, P. M. (2007). Biofeedback training to increase heart rate variability. In P. M. Lehrer, R. M. Woolfolk, & W. E. Sime (Eds.). Principles and practice of stress management (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Lehrer, P. M. (2013). How does heart rate variability biofeedback work? Resonance, the baroreflex, and other mechanisms. Biofeedback, 41, 26–31.
Lehrer, P. M., & Eddie, D. (2013). Dynamic processes in regulation and some implications for biofeedback and biobehavioral interventions. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 38, 143–155.
Lehrer, P., Karavidas, M. K., Lu, S. E., Coyle, S. M., Oikawa, L. O., Macor, M., Calvano, S. E., & Lowry, S. F. (2010). Voluntarily produced increases in heart rate variability modulate autonomic effects of endotoxin induced systemic inflammation: An exploratory study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 35(4), 303–315.
Lehrer, P. M., Smetankin, A., & Potapova, T. (2000a). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia biofeedback therapy for asthma: A report of 20 unmedicated pediatric cases using the Smetankin method. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 25, 193–200.
Lehrer, P. M., & Vaschillo, E. (2008). The future of heart rate variability biofeedback. Biofeedback, 36(1), 11–14.
Lehrer, P. M., Vaschillo, E. V., & Vaschillo, B. (2004). Heartbeat synchronizes with respiratory rhythm only under specific circumstances. Chest, 126(4), 1385–1386.
Lehrer, P. M., Vaschillo, E., Vaschillo, B., Lu, S. E., Eckberg,
D. L., Edelberg, R., et al. (2003). Heart rate variability biofeedback increases baroreflex gain and peak expiratory flow. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 796–805.

Lehrer, P., Vaschillo, E., Vaschillo, B., Lu, S-E, Scardella, A., &Habib, R. (2004). Biofeedback treatment for asthma.
Chest, 126, 352–361.
Lehrer, P., Vaschillo, B., Zucker, T., Graves, J., Katsamanis, M., Aviles, M., & Wamboldt, F. (2013). Protocol for heart rate variability biofeedback training. Biofeedback, 41(3), 98–109.
MacLean, B. (2004). The heart and the breath of love. Biofeedback, 32(4), 21–25.
Maver, J., Strucl, M., & Accetto, R. (2004). Autonomic nervous system activity in normotensive subjects with a family history of hypertension. Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society, 14(6), 369–375.
McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., Tiller, W. A. (1995). The effects of emotion on short term heart rate variability using power spectrum analysis. American Journal of Cardiology, 76.
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